Surface Mount Technology (SMT) vs Through-Hole (THT): Explained

Comparing Through-Hole (THT) and Surface Mount (SMT) Technologies in Electronics

As the technology evolved room size computers transformed into tablets and portable laptops, it’s a bigger picture while on a smaller scale, as electronic components shrank in size throughout time, as a result, electronic gadgets are becoming smaller and more portable.

During the 1980’s through through-hole components and through-hole technology were very popular but with the advancement of technology, most of the components transformed into SMD(surface mount devices) but the importance of through hole technology is still there according to the requirement. Surface mount technology (SMT) and through-hole technology are the two primary soldering methods used for electronic components. The decision between the two approaches ultimately comes down to the particular requirements of the project because each approach has pros and cons of its own. To understand the difference between THT and SMT lets understand them separately.

What is Through Hole Technology (THT)?

Through-hole technology involves drilling holes into the PCB and installing components through those holes. For larger components that must be firmly attached to the board, this technique is excellent. Because through-hole components can be easily desoldered and taken off the board, they are also simpler to replace. There are further two types of through hole soldering

Axial soldering technique: As axial component’s leads are extended from both ends in a straight line. When components are placed horizontally along with the surface of pcb both leads enter the through hole to the other side of pcb where they are soldered on respective through hole pad. This process of placing components mechanically which are in axial packaging and then soldering whether through wave soldering or with manual soldering is known as axial soldering. Mostly resistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes are in axial packaging.

Radial soldering technique: Radial components are those components which have their leads perpendicular to their body or just like they sprout out from the bottom surface of the component’s body. These components are placed flat with the surface of board and the leads entered in the respective through hole pad and then they are connected electrically and mechanically with their respective connections. This process of connecting and soldering components is known as radial soldering. Components with radial packages, including electrolytic capacitors, certain diodes, and transistors, are frequently used in this manner.

What is Surface Mount Technique (SMT)?

SMT is the process of attaching components directly to a printed circuit board’s (PCB) surface. Smaller components benefit greatly from this method’s tighter packing and better space utilization. Since SMT components are not subjected to the same stresses as through-hole components, they are also less prone to undergo mechanical stress. Electronic components are mounted onto printed circuit boards (PCBs) using surface mount technology (SMT). In contrast to conventional through-hole technology, where components have leads that pass-through holes and slots in the PCB, SMT parts have metallic pads on their outermost layers that connect directly to the PCB.

The main features of surface mount technology are as follows:

SMT components: SMT components are designed with small metal contacts on their surfaces. These components are typically smaller and lighter than their through-hole replacements.

PCB design: The SMT PCBs contain corresponding metal pads on their surfaces for mounting SMT components. Solder paste, a sticky concoction of flux and microscopic solder particles, is typically used to cover these pads.

Soldering technique: SMT components are soldered onto the PCB using solder paste during the soldering process. The components are precisely placed on the pads covered in solder paste using an advanced tool known as a pick-and-place machine. After that, a reflow oven is used to heat the entire assembly. The component leads and the PCB pads are connected mechanically and electrically by melting solder paste when it is heated.


Comparison of THT and SMT

Due to its effectiveness, ability to be reduced in size, and compatibility with current electronic equipment, SMT technology has established itself as the industry standard. It enables the manufacturing of better performing lighter, and smaller electrical goods. However, through-hole technology continues to be used in particular applications where mechanical strength, heat resistance, or the accessibility of specific parts are crucial considerations. In order to meet particular design needs, it’s common to combine SMT and THT components on the same PCB.

Here is a thorough comparison between Surface Mount Technology (SMT) vs Through-Hole Technology (THT) based on several of factors:

Series ProductionTHT assembly is usually time taking process and less cost-effective for series production since it requires more manual soldering.SMT assembly is fully automotive, and machine driven hence need less time for series production which saves time and money.
Size THT components cover more area due to size of through hole components, so they are less suitable for compact size.SMD components are smaller in size, so they are effective where there density of components is high while the size of pcb is small.
Mechanical StrengthThrough hole components have leads or pins which pass through the hole and soldered other side of the pcb which give them more mechanical strength and firmness hence they can bear more physical strains and mechanical robustness.SMT components are surface mounted, their leads are directly soldered on to the pads which are present on the surface of the pcb that’s why they are not mechanically firm where there are high vibrations and high pressures
Heat Sensitive ComponentsThrough hole soldering of heat sensitive components is easy and handy as you can control soldering temperature for each component.Reflow soldering technique is used in SMT. During which solder paste is reflowed and then whole assembly is heated to connect the pads and pins of components which is fatal for heat sensitive components.
High Frequency ApplicationsDue to high level of parasitic capacitance and inductance through hole components are not suggested for higher frequency applicationsSMT components are compatible to high frequencies because of their low parasitic capacitance and inductance.
Weather ConditionsThrough hole components are capable of heat resistance hence they are preferred in extreme weather conditionsSMT components are more sensitive than through hole, so they are avoided where systems face extreme weather conditions.
AvailabilityThrough hole components are not easily available due to advancement of technology and less frequent use of them.Currently SMT components are easily and frequently available


Overall, it may be said in modern era of electronics, SMT technology is used most while through hole is not only becoming history but also has less advantages over SMT technology but in some areas still THT is used. In SMT technology using pick and place machines for pcb assembly there comes best results for quick turn circuit boards which is becoming necessity to catch up the pace of the modern era of technology.


How to Make a BOM for PCB

Creating a Detailed BOM for Efficient PCB Development

BOM is a detailed document that the designer must provide to the manufacturer with information on the materials and components utilized for a specific PCB design.

Let’s understand this by imagining that you need a dress. You go to the designer and tell him you need golden buttons from ABC brand, laces in LMN’s design and color, threads in XYZ brand in certain colors, and fabric (size, color, and manufacturer). For all the choices you made for the essentials of your design if you have their links, you share those links to be more specific and accurate. You can ultimately help a tailor or designer to create the dress of your dreams by using the design and its measurements together you provided with the choice of all the accessories and fabric.

Similar to this, when you give a manufacturer Gerber files for a PCB design, you also give them a BOM file or bill of materials file. Manufacturers can purchase and assemble components with the necessary orientations on pcb taking into account BOM files.

What is BOM?

A detailed description of every part and material needed to create and assemble a printed circuit board is contained in the bill of materials, or BOM, for the PCB. It plays an important role in PCB fabrication, procurement, and assembly. Based on this specified BOM, the manufacturer, and assembler can create the required PCB, therefore it must be detail-oriented while yet extremely precise.


Who creates and manages a BOM?

The Art of Managing BOM: A Story of Collaboration and Innovation

Depending on the organizational culture, different organizations adhere to different hierarchies. Usually, a team of professionals involved in the product development process creates a Bill of Materials (BOM) for a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Multiple stakeholders, including the following, must provide input for the design of a PCB BOM:

  1. Project managers oversee the full process of developing a product, including the BOM. They are responsible for delivering quality project on time, so quality, quantity and procurement of the components is very important for them.
  2. Electrical engineers design the circuit and select the required components in order to achieve the function that they want. In determining the ratings, values, types, tolerances, and quantities of components that should be used on the PCB, they are the vital part of BOM making.
  3. PCB designers are responsible for the layout of the PCB, including component placement, electrical routing, and taking into consideration of the board’s mechanical specs. They depend on the provided BOM to make sure that the selected components are mechanically fit set to the size of pcb and required system.
  4. Component engineers are in the role of identifying components that match to the required requirements for availability, cost, and reliability. They could give recommendations for component replacement and selection.
  5. Mechanical engineers could be involved in the design process if the PCB is a part of a larger mechanical assembly. They need BOM to understand the mechanical requirements and space constraints of the PCB.
  6. As a project develops, maintaining the BOM is typically the job of documentation specialists. Throughout the course of the product’s lifetime, they make sure the BOM is correct and up to date. After the BOM is created and completed by every aspect, the design department’s project manager will forward it to the manufacturing and purchasing department for further process.
  7. The procurement team is in responsible for identifying and procuring the parts listed in the BOM. In order to determine the specific part numbers, quantities, and vendors for each component, they rely on the BOM.
  8. Manufacturing engineers use the BOM to lay out the assembly process, which includes component placement, soldering procedures, and quality control methods. A flawless and free of mistakes assembly process is made possible by accurate BOM.
  9. Quality control department can look over the BOM to confirm that the correct parts were used throughout the PCB assembly process in the right amount. It can be referred to as a quality check list during the quality assurance process.

So, we can say that the development of a PCB BOM is a combine effort of various departments mentioned above. As per hierarchy of the organization the process may differ but these all are the stake holders of BOM. To create an accurate and useful BOM that supports the successful design, manufacture, and assembly of the PCB, good communication and cooperation between various stakeholders are important.

How to Create a Comprehensive BOM?

The following essential information for each component should be included in a thorough bill of materials (BOM) for a printed circuit board (PCB), although they may vary from project to project based on the specifications for PCB and PCBA assembly. Here are a few categories that should be in the BOM; you can add or remove them according to what you require.

Reference Designator: There must be unique identity across each component on Pcb or example U1, U2, U3 for ICs similarly R1, R2, R3 for resistors and C1, C2, C3 for resistors. Lable them same as you label in Pcb file and mention other categories along them.

Part Number: The component’s part number from the manufacturer. This knowledge is essential for locating and choosing the right component.

Manufacturer: the company that creates the component. This makes it easier to get parts from trustworthy vendors.

Value: The component’s electrical value or rating. For instance, the voltage and current ratings for other components, the capacitance value for a capacitor, or the resistance value for a resistor.

Package Type: The component’s actual packaging or footprint. Specifying this helps to ensure proper component placement and assembly because different components come in different package types.

Description: A brief overview of the component, which may also give further details about its features, functions, standards, tolerance ratings, operating voltages etc.

Quantity: The total number of parts needed to assemble a PCB. In order to prevent shortages or overages during production, make sure that this quantity is precise. It is very necessary to make it accurate for series production and cost estimation.

Component Location: This is very helpful for PCBs with many layers that are complex. It details the precise coordinates or location where each component should be placed.

Layer: Mention the layer on which particular layer, whether top or bottom it should be placed.

Placement method: A likewise specify the surface mount technology or placement method that will be used to attach each component to the board. Through-hole and surface mount technology (SMT) are among of these techniques.

Datasheet Links: Links to the technical documentation or datasheets for each component. By doing this, it is made sure that everyone involved with the BOM has access to precise specs.

Supporting files: You’ll generate files as you design your board, including CAD files, data sheets, schematics, and instructions that don’t fit within the BOM spreadsheet. When needed, you should attach these additional files and link them to the relevant BOM level and components.

Notes: Any additional details or special instructions pertaining to the component, such as suggested soldering methods, sources of alternative materials, and recommended soldering techniques.

Alternative part numbers: If any component is unique and its availability is less, then provide the alternative part number with same footprint otherwise pcb designer has to change foot pattern on pcb board.

Distributor: The distributor or manufacturer who are providing components to procure. For quality products it is very important to mention distributor.

List of manufacturers: A list of authorized suppliers or manufacturers for each component is provided under Approved Manufacturers. This might aid in guaranteeing dependability and consistency.

Cost: Including the price of each component is optional, however doing so could help in cost analysis and planning.

Availability: The component’s lifetime state is listed, showing whether it is active or it is approaching the end of its intended lifespan, or it is obsolete. This is critical for the product’s long-term planning and maintenance.

Lead time: Lead time is listed in the BOM in order to check how much time component will take to be there for planning production and keeping the track of inventory.

Revision History: This is very important to mention the revision history, when and how BOM modified along with dates and summary of modifications.

A complete and precise BOM must be done for optimal and quick PCB assembly, procuring, and maintaining. A successful and reliable end product is created by making sure that the right components are used, procured, and assembled on the PCB during production.

Additionally, Rush PCB Limited is offering model templates that may be filled using the data gathered and documented in detailed BOM together with other Geber files. To get in touch for model BOM template, please feel free to email or contact us.

Stretchable PCB

Where to use Stretchable PCB Technology

Stretchable PCB Technology: RUSH PCB UK LTD Innovates for Flexible Applications

Traditional Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are rigid, meaning they are not meant to be bent during use. A different type of circuit board is available for use in applications that need the board to flex or bend repeatedly—flexible circuit boards. Both these are not very useful if the application demands the circuit board be stretched. For this, RUSH PCB UK LTD recommends using stretchable PCB technology. [1]

Stretchable PCB Construction

Although stretchable PCB technology uses classical processes for the production and assembly of such PCBs, the laminate is either Polyurethane or Polyimide. This has the advantage of realizing stretchable PCBs with relatively low investments. For ease of assembly of components on the substrate, manufacturers use one of two methods as follows.

Manufacturers reinforce the laminate locally using an interposer or a special coating. The alternate method is to use Stretch-Rigid technology. Rather than connect two rigid boards with a flexible PCB as in Rigid-Flex construction, Stretch-Rigid technology connects multiple rigid boards using stretchable substrates with embedded copper interconnection traces. The electronic components are soldered on the rigid parts. [2]

Properties of Stretchable PCBs

PCBs with stretchable substrates are useful for applications that require the PCB to stretch, twist, bend, or any combination thereof. The stretchable substrate is ductile enough to decouple mechanical resonances, which reduces the effort necessary for compensating mechanical tolerances.

Stretchable PCBs come in single or double layers, with Polyurethane being the usual stretchable substrate. Typical base material thickness varies between 90 and 100 µm or 3.5 and 3.9 mil, while the copper weight is usually 0.5 Oz or 17.5 µm.

As the substrate must stretch, manufacturers take special care to give the copper a high peel strength of about 5 N/mm or 456 Oz/in, and a tensile strength of 6 MPa or 870 psi at 50% strain.

The above features of the substrate allow the stretchable PCB a maximum stretchability of 30% of its original length and 10% stretchability for repeated elongations. This, however, depends on the structure of the copper pattern on the stretchable substrate. As the maximum allowed temperature for soldering on the substrate is about 150°C, the assembly process uses SnBi solder and FR4 interposers.

This allows a usable operational temperature range of 0 to 100°C for stretchable PCBs. Where the application requires a stretchable substrate of short length and low volume, manufacturers prefer to use Polyurethane as the substrate material. If the application demands a long and high-volume substrate link between the rigid parts, Polyimide is preferable. [2]

Advantages of Stretchable PCBs

Stretchable PCBs are very useful in the industry where two parts of a machine move relative to each other and must be interconnected electrically. For instance, a sensor executing complex movements on a stationary machine is best interconnected using a stretchable PCB as it allows the sensor to move in multiple degrees of freedom, including linear and rotational. Apart from being able to twist and bend, the stretchable interconnect can also allow the sensor to move linearly away from the machine (stretch) when needed, with a maximum elongation of 30% of its original length.

Therefore, two or more rigid boards connected by stretchable substrates can change their positions very easily, can change their positional angles relative to each other, and move apart or come close to each other, while remaining electrically tethered to each other all the time. However, for repeated stretching and contractions, RUSH PCB recommends limiting the elongation of stretchable PCBs to 10% of the original length. [3]

Mechanism of Stretchable PCBs

Although the thermoplastic Polyurethane that manufacturers use as a substrate for stretchable PCBs can stretch inherently, copper traces in straight lines on the substrate prevent it from doing so, as copper is not ductile enough for the purpose. Manufacturers use special press and confidential lay-up techniques for bonding the standard ED or RA copper foil on the Polyurethane substrate. Once this is done, they use regular subtractive wet-etching PCB processing steps such as drilling, metalizing, imaging, plating, and etching for fabricating stretchable circuits.

As adding multiple layers of adhesive and Polyurethane substrates reduces the stretchability of the product, stretchable PCBs are mostly double-sided and have four layers at the most. To maintain a homogeneous elastomeric construction, manufacturers apply a Polyurethane solder mask or overlay on the finished PCB. [4]

Assembly of a stretchable PCB uses the standard off-the-shelf surface mounting components soldered on its copper tracks. As these components are rigid, the areas where the components are positioned cannot stretch. Therefore, the concept of the stretchable circuit is small islands of a rigid nature holding a few SMD components interconnected with conductive copper foil on stretchable substrates. For a mechanically reliable PCB, the manufacturing technique follows a gradual transition from the rigid area to the flexible area and ultimately to the stretchable region.

To allow the copper traces on the substrate to flex without damage, the designer gives the traces a horseshoe shape rather than allowing them to travel in straight lines. The designer then places the horseshoe shapes alternately facing 180°, allowing them to meander along the path the straight trace would have normally taken. When stretched, the horseshoe tracks will uncurl without much stress. Other shapes such as triangular and sinusoidal interconnect traces can also stretch, but exhibit higher stresses, leading to lower reliability. This has led manufacturers to standardize the horseshoe shape. [6]

Designers must note that stretching copper traces lead to a change in their resistance. For instance, tests conducted on copper traces with a thickness of 15 µm, width of 1 mm, and length of 80 mm showed an original resistance of 7.4 Ω, which increased to 13.5 Ω when the trace was stretched by 10%, to 23.8 Ω when stretched by 20%, and to 37.6 Ω when stretched by 30%. However, lab tests have verified that the trace maintained its conductivity even after a 300% stretching. [5]

Also Read: Five Reasons Why RushPCB is the Leading LED Board Manufacturer in UK

Uses of Stretchable PCB

Applications that demand the PCB be placed on a non-flat surface are the major users of stretchable PCBs. A conventional rigid PCB cannot be comfortably integrated on a non-flat surface such as that in wearable and implantable devices. Devices such as those used in smart textiles, safety, sports and leisure, and biomedical applications often follow irregular shapes, and the printed circuit must follow the shape for proper integration.

Although it is possible to form a flexible circuit in the shape of a cone or a cylinder, only a stretchable circuit can be deformed onto any type of surface, as it has stretchable interconnects. [6]

For instance, a stretchable PCB placed in the sole of a shoe can measure pressure with embedded sensors, collecting data with free movement of the user. Placed inside bandages, the pressure sensors on a stretchable circuit can measure the tightness of the applied bandage. [2]


A completely new range of electronic devices can make use of stretchable PCBs providing comfortability as their unique characteristic. Apart from the few uses listed above, stretchable PCBs are already being used in applications involving artificial skins, randomly shaped biomedical implants, and conformable light sources.


Why RushPCB

Why RushPCB UK Is a Reliable PCB Manufacturing Company

Why RushPCB UK Is a Reliable PCB Manufacturing Company

Consumer demands and industry challenges are increasing tremendously towards lightweight products, miniaturisation, greater product design freedom, lower costs, more environmental friendly applications, and higher reliability. In all these aspects, flexible circuits from a trusted PCB manufacturer UK, RushPCB, are proving their worth.

Flexible Circuits from RushPCB UK

The flexible circuit technology offers a huge range of benefits and capabilities. Offered by the best PCB manufacturer UK, flexible circuits effectively eliminate wiring errors commonly associated with manual wiring harnesses, which simplifies assembly. As these circuits can flex, form, and bend to follow the contours of cabinets, they often eliminate several connectors, reducing component numbers, assembly effort, and time. All this goes to increase the product reliability.

RushPCB, a reliable PCB manufacturer UK, makes high-quality flex circuits that encourage 3-D packaging through their property of dynamic flexing. The circuits offer unmatched high speed and high frequency performance as they allow excellent control over transmission impedance, while offering lower impedance as compared to that offered by conventional wiring.

RushPCB offers flex circuits with dielectric substrates that are good conductors of heat. This improves heat dissipation, while flat conductors provide thinner circuits, leading to a huge improvement in airflow capabilities. Additionally, the compliant substrate minimises thermal mismatches.

The lightweight nature of flex circuits helps in reducing the weight of the product, which in turn, the OEMs can use for increasing their products’ packaging density, aesthetics, appearance, or for offering designs that are more integrated.

Advantages of Flexible Circuits from RushPCB UK

There are several benefits of using flexible circuits from the most trusted PCB manufacturer UK. RushPCB offers the thinnest dielectric substrates, as thin as 0.002 inches, and these reduce the package size and weight extensively—sometimes by as much as 75%—the weight reduction being especially attractive to the aerospace industry.

By using flexible circuits, OEMs can bring down their assembly costs. They achieve this in two ways—first, by reducing the number of assembly operations required, and second, by their ability to test the circuit before committing it to the final assembly. This comes from the highly reliable design of flexible circuits from the best PCB manufacturer UK, RushPCB, as their design offers an excellent means of reducing the number of levels of interaction required by the product.

Hand-built wire harnesses do ease the assembly process, but often introduce wiring errors that take up troubleshooting and repair time. Flexible circuits eliminate wiring errors entirely, as it is not possible to route them to points other than those already designated.


SMT and Flexible Circuits Assembly

RushPCB, the best PCB manufacturer UK, offers flexible substrates, and uses the most advanced surface mount technology (SMT) components and reliable conductive lead-free solder pastes for mounting them. Flexible circuits from RushPCB come with highly compliant substrate material that effectively counteracts the effects of thermal stress, as SMT components are highly sensitive to thermal mismatch between the component material, mounting, and the substrate.

High Density Interconnect PCBs from RushPCB

For customers requiring even higher wiring density per unit area, highly trusted PCB manufacturer UK, RushPCB, offers the High Density Interconnect (HDI) PCB technology. HDI technology offers finer lines and spaces, smaller vias, capture pads, and higher connection pad densities than conventional PCB technology can. OEMs use HDI PCBs to reduce the weight and size of their products, while enhancing their electrical performance.

RushPCB makes HDI PCBs using microvia and buried via technology, along with sequentially placed lamination, insulation material, and conductor wiring layers for very high density of routing. Coming from the best PCB manufacturer UK, RushPCB, HDI PCBs are the best alternatives to expensive high layer-count standard laminates or sequentially laminated boards.

Signal Integrity in HDI PCBs

For high-speed boards, maintaining signal integrity is highly desirable. For this, the PCB has to possess excellent AC characteristics, such as high-frequency transmission capabilities, impedance control, and low radiation. Furthermore, stripline and microstrip transmission line characteristics necessitate a multi-layered design.

To maintain signal integrity, the insulating material in the PCB must have a low dielectric factor along with a low attenuation ratio. Unprecedented high-density is demanded by mounting and assembly methods for Direct Chip Attachment, Chip Scale Packaging, and Ball Grid Array packages. RushPCB achieves these using the microvias and buried via technology, which uses holes with diameters down to 150µm and even lower. Rather than use regular drill bits, RushPCB prefers to use highly accurate lasers for drilling such small-diameter holes.

Advantages of Using HDI PCBs

The HDI technology from RushPCB offers substantial advantages over regular PCBs—making products smaller and allowing high-speed and high-frequency operations possible. HDI offers compact boards that give better electrical performance and lowers the power consumption. Shorter connections mean better signal integrity and other performance improvements due to minimal stubs, closer ground planes, lower EMI/RFI, and distributed capacitances.

rush pcb

RushPCB is Internationally Certified

OEMs, when selecting a consultancy for circuit board manufacturing, look for those with certification to international standards. Trusted PCB manufacturer UK, RushPCB, conforms to IPC-A-600, and the standard defines the acceptability of circuit boards for quality of workmanship and sets the comprehensive criteria for their acceptance.

That means RushPCB as PCB manufacturer UK produces quality products and identifies sources of non-conformance, if any, in their manufacturing processes. RushPCB conforms to the IPC-A-600 training and certification, and therefore, the manufacturing services reduces the risk of mounting expensive components on PCBs that are defective. This not only reduces scrap, but also facilitates better communication with OEMs.

As a trusted PCB manufacturer UK, RushPCB employs experienced engineers, purchasing professionals, and quality inspectors to define PCB requirements properly, specify requirements for purchasing, and to detect non-conformances. If you are looking for a reliable PCB manufacturing company, as a trusted PCB manufacturer UK, RushPCB will fulfil all your requirements.


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PCB Design

Up and Coming PCB Designs

Advancements in PCB Designs: Shaping Future Technologies

We know the importance of PCBs in our tech-savvy world. The continual advancements in modern technology creates a need for continual advancements in printed board circuits. There is a demand for smaller, more elegant, and dependable PCB designs. These new designs are used from PC manufacturing to new medical technology. The constant development of new printed board circuit designs allows the technology industry to keep inventing new ways to make our lives a little easier and in some cases healthier. Today, we are going to explore some of the advancements that we are already benefitting from and what is in store for the future of the PCB Fabrication Industry.
Board Cameras are now being used in medicine to make diagnostic testing much more comfortable for patients. Instead of a large, uncomfortable scope or camera being inserted into the area of the body that is being examined, the patient can now swallow a camera that will collect the necessary information that a physician needs to make a diagnosis. One example of this is called Capsule Endoscopy, the patient will swallow the disposable “pill” which will take up to fifty thousand pictures of your digestive tract. The pill travels out of the body through a bowel movement and can be flushed away.
Vertical Conductive Structures (VeCS) is the invention of Joan Tourné will offers a less expensive alternative for challenging fan-out projects to fine-pitch grid array components. Although still in the testing phase of development, Tourné states “Not only can we achieve higher interconnection density by packing more vertical connections in a smaller space, at the same time we can increase conductor router channel density under grid array components.” He continues to explain that PCB Fabricators will not experience additional cost with this method since the technology required is already being used by high-end shops after the appropriate training and licensing. We will have to wait and see if this new method will prove beneficial to the PCB Fabrication industry.
GaNonCMOS project consortium is currently working on a project that will use energy efficiency using GaN power switches and CMOS drivers. Collaboration on this project began in January 2017, the goal is to work with optimized embedded printed circuit boards creating integrated power components for less expensive, better-functioning systems. That sounds wonderful, let’s hope that it works!
Newer, better, stronger. PCB designs are the backbone of any electronic device. They provide us the ease of access to information around the world, they allow us to stay in constant contact with our loved ones and are beginning to play a vital role in medical technology. Smaller, elegant, smarter. PCB Fabricators are constantly challenged to create innovative boards to further our thirst for the technological and make our world an easier place to live.

Starkey, Pete. 2017. Vertical Conductive Structures–a New Dimension in High-Density Printed Circuit Interconnect Accessed March 9, 2017
Prophet, Graham. 2017 Consortia to develop GaN processes and PCB panel-level packaging Accessed March 9, 2017


Understanding the Basic Aspects of Electronic Components

Understanding the Basic Aspects of Electronic Components

If you are not sure what an electrical component is rest assured, you are not alone.  For those of us who love our devices, but have no idea how they work, sit back, relax and get ready to learn!  Electronic components are the meat and potatoes of the electronic devices we use every day and can’t live without.  They are not flashy and are usually quite easy to overlook.  However, without them, we would literally be back in the dark ages. Today we are going to discuss some of the most basic electronic components.  Some examples include parts like resistors, capacitors, LEDs, transistors, and integrated circuits.  So, let’s get started with the basics.


Resistors have been named for their function, resisting the current.  The resistor is responsible for managing the volts and current in nearly any device that requires electricity.  It is the resistor that allows your device to continually operate without overheating or worse.  By controlling the voltage, it allows just the right amount of electrical current that is needed to operate the device, if it did not do this, then the device would receive too much electrical current and then overheat or in technical terms fry.


Capacitors are used to store an electronic charge for a small period which is released when the charge is needed.  The capacitor will release the stored-up charge when there is a disruption in the circuit of the device resulting in the need for additional power to keep it running.  Kind of like a backup battery, or you can think of it in terms of a generator.  When there is a blackout, facilities or homes that are equipped with a backup generator will not be left in the dark, the generator will save the day by providing electricity to the building.

LEDs (Limiting Emitting Diode)

Although this sounds like something that Luke Skywalker would use, LEDs are routinely used.  LEDs are used to provide light.  That little light that comes on when your cell phone is charging or the power light on your personal computer is the LEDs in action!


Transistors are a little more difficult to wrap your mind around.  They are made of three terminals;

  • Base: Voltage goes through first, it makes the collector “turn on”
  • Collector: Receive voltage from base has a positive charge
  • Emitter: Receives voltage from collector has a negative charge

They work together as a switch to turn the circuit “on”.

Integrated Circuits

An integrated circuit is a tiny component that may contain some of the components you have just learned about.  They are the cornerstone of the devices we know and love ranging from cell phones to our home and work personal computers.  Without them, we would not be in the age of technology that we currently enjoy!

So, there you have it!  Your first lesson in the basic aspects of electronic components is now complete!  We hope you have found this information valuable and informative.


Choosing the Right Flexible Circuit Supplier – Five Critical Considerations

Choosing the Right Flexible Circuit Supplier – Five Critical Considerations

If you are currently shopping for a flexible circuit supplier to build your circuit board, but are not too experienced in this arena, please take the time the time to read the following information.  The choice you are about to make is too important.  One of the biggest mistakes people often make is going with the lowest bidder, although easy on the wallet, you may be exposing yourself to a whole lot of aggravation and frustration.  When you are interviewing perspective flexible circuit supplier it is important to keep the following points in mind;

  • Capabilities (applications, designs, volume, engineering, and fabrication)
  • Assembly
  • Certifications
  • Quality Systems


Can they meet your needs?  Do they have the right equipment and the required knowledge?  After you have explained what your needs are can they tell you how they will meet the mechanical needs, which chemicals they will use, what type of thermals will be used, how the electrical aspects will work, how big it will be, and how the surface will be finished?  If not, then you should probably move on to the next applicant.

Will they be able to meet your supply needs while building it the exact way you need them to?

Do they have the capability to meet your fabrication requirements on a routine basis?  The fabrication process is quite detailed, will they be able to meet every detail you need every time you need it?


Can the perspective supplier provide the necessary components?  If so this can save time by eliminating the process of shipping it to another facility to have them added.  But, you should ask them if they have the appropriate equipment, know how?  If they are not capable of performing the component assembly, it just may be worth the extra time to send it to someone who knows what to do and how to do it correctly the first time around.


Find out what type of certifications they currently have.  Certifications are an important aspect because they show the suppliers dedication, experience, as well as knowledge of the industry.  This may be a deal breaker for you.  Why should you trust a supplier that does not hold any certifications in their expertise?

Quality Systems

When a supplier has taken the time to demonstrate their expertise through certification they are also providing proof of their standards.  This is because they will routinely go through an auditing process to keep their certification current.  The certifying agency performs the audit, ensuring that the required standards and quality systems are in place and more importantly being used.

Although you may not be an expert in the Circuit Board Industry, it does not mean you can’t arm yourself with the important questions that should be easily answered by the prospective supplier.  You have worked too long and hard to just hand your project over to a supplier who can’t meet your needs.  Perform due diligence now, avoid problems later.

CES 2017

CES 2017 Overview

CES 2017 Overview

The largest tech conference in the world is about to start. Here’s what we expect to see.

global consumer electronics and consumer technology tradeshow

History of Circuit Boards

History of Circuit Boards

History of Circuit Boards

When looking back at the technology of yesterday it is amazing to see just far it has come.  Computerization has captured our imagination and amazed us with its ease of use and practical applications.  If you were to speak with a millennial today they will probably not be able to appreciate technological history since they were born into a world of smart phones, fit bits, and the world-wide web.  If you would like to test this theory just, try to take away their cell phones or iPads sit back and watch the world end as they know it.  For those of us who were the remote control for our parents, kept track of time by a watch (or the street lights) and know what a phone booth is (was) the advancements we have witnessed throughout our lives is genuinely amazing.  None of this would have been possible if it was not for printed circuit boards.

What Did We Do Before Printed Circuit Boards?

Well, we used wires of course!  Point to point construction was used.  This used big bulky wires and outlets that were not easily manageable and took a lot of time to maintain.

The First Signs of Technology

In the 1920’s circuit boards were made by various materials such as Bakelite, Masonite, and wood to name a few.  Holes would be drilled allowing flat brass wires to be riveted to it.  This was a very rough draft of today’s circuit boards.  In 1943 patents for first PCB (printed circuit board) were filed by Paul Eisler who designed them.  At the time the components of electrical machinery were connected by hand soldered wires.  He filed patents, three-dimensional printed circuits, foil technique of printed circuits, and powder printing.1947 ushered in the first double-sided printed circuit boards that had plated through holes.

U.S. Patent Office Grants Patents to U.S. Army’s Representative Scientists

This was a huge step in the progress of the PCB.  The scientists research was dedicated to the “process of assembling electrical circuits”.  This was granted in 1956 and laid the ground work for what will become the printed circuit boards of today.  The IPC (Institute of Printed Circuit Boards) was founded and held their first meeting in 1957.

The 60’s and 70’s Continual Growth

The first multilayer began to be produced in 1960.  Between the 60’s and 70’s changes in the process were introduced;

  • They were designed with a four to one ratio of red-and-blue line vellum method
  • Cameras were used make a one to one ratio of negative manufacturing film

By the 1970’s we started to see smaller more sophisticated devices that introduced new challenges to the industry.

Today there is not a computerized machine that does not operate without a printed circuit board.  The differences between then and now are obvious and are considered great accomplishments in the world of technology today.  Constant innovations and improvements are guaranteed to be designed and amaze those of us who born during its conception!

Global Electronics Up and Coming Technology

Global Electronics Up and Coming Technology

Global Electronics Up and Coming Technology

It makes sense that electrical engineering has reached every corner of the world.  It seems that every time you turn around there is a new quicker and efficient way to create computerized electronic devices.  Countries around the world have joined this ever-growing trend of electronical advances to claim their stakes in the rewards and benefits that are reaped from this industry.  Global technology is rather unique in the sense that citizens of every country can enjoy its products regardless of the its country of origin, it’s out there for the masses and we are certainly happy about that!

New Industrial IoT Starter Kit Has Been Introduced: Streamlining Smart Devices and Cloud

Avnet, Inc. one of the world’s largest global distributor of electronics released an industrial IoT starter kit that streamlines smart devices and the cloud “Avnet MicroZed Industrial IoT Starter Kit”. This kit comes with equipped with everything you need straight out of the box to simplify the client’s prototype and development process making it faster so you can get to the fabrication process smoothly so your project can be completed that much sooner.  It includes;

  • MicroZed 7010 SoM that is based on the Xilinx Zynq-7000 All Programmable SoC and pre-loaded with Wind River’s new Pulsar Linux operating system
  • IBM Watson IoT agent
  • MicroZed Adruino Carrier Card
  • Pluggable sensors:  Motion and Environmental Sensor Board from STMicroelectronics and Thermocouple-to-Digital Pmod sensor model from Maxim Integrated
  • Ethernet, USB and power cables
  • A free trial of IBM Bluemix services

To learn more visit Design World, you will find the information you are looking for.

Modulator Drivers Advances to 64Gbaud

M/A-COM Technology Solutions “MACOM” has introduced a revolutionary 64Gbaud quad-channel linear Mach Zehnder modulator driver which is the first of its kind, the “MAOM-006428”.  It was designed to handle data rates of 400 Gbps and more using one wavelength for large communications utilizing coherent technology.  Its features include

  • Surface mount inputs
  • G3PO outputs
  • Linear performance
  • Low power consumption
  • Compact form

You can also learn more about this by visiting Design World.

Solving Industrial Issues One Idea at a Time

36-V op amps “TSB572”and “TSB611” are single volt amps that have been designed to supply GBW/Icc capability allowing around five times less supply current than standard op amps.  They are perfect for vehicle radio systems and electronic control units.  Their features include;


  • Rail-to-Rail inputs
  • Rail-to-Rail outputs
  • 2.5MHz GBW
  • 1.5mV max input-offset voltage
  • Stability with capacitive loads
  • High resistance to phase reversal
  • Voltage range from 4.0V to 36V


  • 560kHz GBW
  • Can function from voltage as low as 2.7V
  • Unity-gain-stable device
  • Very low input-offset voltage of 1mV
  • Operating current of 125uA (maximum) at 36V

Visit Design World if you are interested in finding out more.

We look forward to the new electronic technological advancements that are to come, and they definitely will.  We have only scratched the surface of the new and exciting designs that are guaranteed to amaze and excite us.  They are just around the corner.

For PCB Manufacturing and PCB Assembly Contact RUSH PCB